Caleb Cangelosi

Augustine on Two Cities, Two Loves

Pastor Carl quoted from Augustine this past Sunday, and I wanted to share an expanded version of that quote here:

Two cities have been formed by two loves: the earthly by the love of self, even to the contempt of God; and the heavenly by the love of God, even to the contempt of self. The former, in a word, glories in itself, the latter in the Lord. For the one seeks glory from men; but the greatest glory of the other is God, the witness of our conscience. The one lifts up its head in its own glory; the other says to its God, “Thou art my glory, and the lifter up of my head” (Psalm 3:3).

— Augustine, The City of God, Book 14, Chapter 28

May the Lord enable us to live each day as citizens of the city of God, the heavenly kingdom which has foundations, whose architect and builder is God Himself.

A-Z Questions for Bible Study

The right question makes all the difference in the world - and not just in Jeopardy. The best interviewers, whether on TV or on podcasts, ask the best questions - the most insightful, the most difficult, the ones that make their subject squirm, or laugh, or angry, or transparent. Knowing the right questions to ask of a person, or a text, usually means the difference between understanding and ignorance.

In 1884, the Encyclopedia of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America was published by Alfred Nevin. The following questions were included in it, as a guide for reading the New Testament in particular, but can be applied to the whole Bible. Helpfully, they are listed in alphabetical form. Keep these handy wherever you read and study God’s word.

In the study of the New Testament, and of the gospels especially, we need to inquire and compare. The inspired writings are infinitely rich in truth, and each verse is so connected with the rest that an intelligent inquirer may easily extend its investigations from one passage over the whole of Scripture. Without attempting to exhaust topics of inquiry, we mention the following :

A. What analogies between sensible and spiritual things may be here traced ?

A1. What prophecy is here accomplished? where found? when written? what rule of interpretation is illustrated?

B. What blessing is here sought or acknowledged, or promised, and why?

C. What custom is here referred to ?

C1. What trait of character is here given? good or bad? belonging to our natural or our renewed state? what advantages are connected with it?

D. What doctrine is here taught? how illustrated? what its practical influence ?

D1. What duty is here enforced, and how? from what motives ?

D2. What difficulty is here found in history or doctrine? how explained?

E. What evangelical or other experience is here recorded?

E1. What example is here placed before us? of sin or of holiness? lessons?

F. What facts are here related? what doctrine or duty do they illustrate? do you commend or blame them, and why ?

G. What is the geographical position of this country, or place? and what its history ?

H. What facts of natural history or of general history are here referred to or illustrated?

I. What institution or ordinance is here mentioned? On whom bindling? what its design? what its connection with other institutions?

I1. What instructions may be gathered from this fact, or parable, or miracle?

K. What knowledge of human nature, or want of knowledge, is here displayed?

L. What lofty expressions of devotional fervor?

L1. What Levitical institute is here mentioned? why appointed?

M. What miracle is here recorded? by whom wrought? in whose name? what were its results? what taught?

N. What is worthy of notice in this name?

P. What prohibition is here given? is it word, or thought, or deed it condemns?

P1. What is the meaning of the parable here given? what truth as to God, Christ, man, "the kingdom," is taught?

P2. What promise is here given? to whom?

R. What prophecy is here recorded? is it fulfilled? how? when?

S. What sin is here exposed?

S1. What sect is here introduced? mention its tenets.

T. What type is here traced?

T. What threatening? when inflicted?

U. What unjustifiable action of a good man? what unusual excellence in one not pious?

W. What woe is here denounced? what warning given? against whom, and why?

X. What is here taught of the work, character, person of Christ?

X1. What sublimity of thought or of language is here? what inference follows ?

A Description of Sincere Confession of Sin

This past Sunday we looked together at Genesis 3:1-13, and discovered much concerning the nature of sin and temptation and our fallen condition by nature. Even in a state of grace, we are sinners still, and thus our prayers must always be filled with confession of sin. Benjamin Morgan Palmer, a pastor at First Presbyterian Church in New Orleans from 1856-1902, has written these helpful words concerning confession of sin in his book Theology of Prayer:

1. It begins with a clear perception of the nature of sin, as seen from the inside as well as from the outside. Sin cannot be fully confessed merely in its consequences. These are dreadful enough, but not so dreadful as the thing itself. God looks at sin in its intrinsic vileness. We make a true confession only when the eye has been opened to take the same view; not, of course, as broad or as deep as that of Jehovah, nor marked with the same terrible abhorrence; but a view nevertheless which is true, because it discovers the real deformity of sin as opposed to all that is beautiful and holy and excellent in the character of God.

2. With this conviction of the essential evil of sin, the heart will be aroused to a proper indignation against it. Let us not be afraid of the terms necessary to express a righteous abhorrence of sin, lest we evaporate their strength until nothing is left but a little pious sentiment. There is such a feeling in a good man's breast as a cultivated resentment, which shall pervade his whole being and arouse every faculty. There is in the soul of the true penitent a virtuous and burning hatred of that which robs God of his honor, and himself of peace. Conscience should be educated to look, not only with pity, but with horror and detestation upon what is known to be wrong. And the more robust and sinewy the character, the more will these generous resentments flame forth against sin in all its forms.

3. Following this holy anger against sin, confession involves a judicial pronouncement against it before the tribunal of conscience. God declares against it “the soul that sinneth, it shall die.” His justice utters the decree which it deserves; and now the sinner, arraigned before the bar of his own conscience, which is the shadow of the tribunal upon which Jehovah sits, pronounces the same condemnation. He not only perceives the fact of transgression, but feels the wrongness of it; and concurs in the justice of the penalty which the law thunders against it.

4. All this, however, would be vain if confession did not include true repentance and abandonment of the sin which is bewailed. The habit of sin may not easily be broken, and the penitent may find himself again ensnared in the net which he is seeking to rend. Nevertheless, it is the sincere purpose and desire at the time to escape the bondage of sin, or else the confession itself is the thinnest deceit ever attempted upon himself or upon the omniscient God. In true confession all the powers of the soul are engaged. The judgment recognizes the standard of duty, and notes the deviations from it. The conscience feels these deviations to be wrong, and fills the soul with shame. The heart kindles with a holy abhorrence of what is impure within ourselves. And the will turns from its commission “with full purpose of, and endeavor after, new obedience.” Thus is the sinner purged from guilt, when his confession has been heard by him who is able to forgive.

A Thank You from Joe Deegan

Two Sundays ago, we were privileged to have Joe Deegan, the RYM Music Resources Coordinator, accompanying our morning worship service. We received this week a thank you note from him, and we wanted to pass it along to you. Please note the Bible study he has written. Continue to keep the ministry of RYM in your prayers!

Dear Pear Orchard Presbyterian,

Thank you so much for having me at your church a couple weeks ago to sing and lead worship! It was such an honor and privilege for me to get to be there with you. I sing and play at several churches and events throughout the year, but I felt more at home at Pear Orchard than I have at almost any other church I’ve visited. There was a genuine warmth there from everyone I met, and I would love to come back again sometime soon if y’all would have me.

I’m also grateful for the love and support you gave to me after the service and the interest you showed in the music of RYM Worship. I wanted to write and tell you where you could find the music in case anyone else is interested. It’s available on iTunes, Spotify, and Apple Music under the artist name “RYM Worship.” The album title is “Promised Land.” Just search for either of those, and the album should pop up.

I also wanted to let you know about a 12-week Bible Study curriculum that I wrote to go along with the album that is available for free on RYM’s website: https://www.rym.org/bible-studies_1/posts/promised-land-bible-study. The study is intended for youth groups but could be used by anyone. It walks through the Scripture and stories behind each of the songs on the album, and it’s set with small group questions and takeaways for discussion.

Again, I just wanted to write and say how grateful I am for the love and support you showed me. I would be honored to come back again sometime and visit. You all made my family feel very welcome, and most importantly, you showed the love of Jesus in your worship, preaching, liturgy, and hospitality. I appreciate all you’re doing for the kingdom at Pear Orchard.

In Christ, Joe Deegan

Why Should I Be a Member of a Local Church?

Many Christians today question the necessity and propriety of membership in a local church. Some even challenge it as an unbiblical concept. They wonder why Presbyterians declare that people must be members of an evangelical church to partake of the Lord’s Supper. They wonder why they should join a local church. Why can’t they just attend worship whenever they want to, or float around to various churches?

Here are a few thoughts on this question, certainly more suggestive than exhaustive:

1. People who doubt that church membership is a Biblical mandate often fail to understand a key tenet of Biblical interpretation – the Bible does not necessarily have to teach something explicitly for it to be a Biblical truth. The Bible also teaches things implicitly. The Bible expects that its readers will use their rational minds to draw conclusions from the text. In the words of the Westminster Confession of Faith, “The whole counsel of God concerning all things necessary for his own glory, man's salvation, faith and life, is either expressly set down in Scripture, or by good and necessary consequence may be deduced from Scripture: unto which nothing at any time is to be added, whether by new revelations of the Spirit, or traditions of men” (WCF I.6). There is no verse that we can go to that explicitly tells a person to join a church – just like there is no verse that teaches explicitly that infants should be baptized, that women should receive the Lord’s Supper, that the Trinity is the true understanding of God, or that the first day of the week is the Christian Sabbath. The Bible is not an encyclopedia or a topical guidebook, and so we must use logical thought to deduce truth from various streams of teaching in narratives, poetry, and epistles. Just because there is no verse that says expressly, “Thou shalt join a church,” does not mean that the Bible does not teach the necessity of church membership.

2. The Old Testament clearly teaches the concept of membership (and non-membership) in the covenant community. In Genesis 17:14, after commanding Abraham to circumcise his male descendants as well as his servants, God makes this statement: “But an uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that person shall be cut off from his people; he has broken My covenant.” The whole notion of being “cut off” from the people of God implies that there are boundary lines to the church (to use Stephen’s name in Acts 7:38 for the people of God under the old covenant). That is, there was such a thing as not being in the visible church, not being a member of the covenant community. As redemptive history progressed, the sign of being a member of the covenant community changed from circumcision to baptism. If someone claims to believe in Jesus, but refuses to be baptized, they are rejecting the outward sign of initiation He has appointed for His people, and ought not to be recognized as members of the visible church.

3. Some people will argue that if they have believed in Jesus Christ and have been baptized, then they are members of the invisible/universal church, and therefore do not need to be a member of an particular local, visible expression of the “big-C” Church. This is a misunderstanding and misapplication of the notion of the invisible/universal church, which our Westminster Larger Catechism defines as “the whole number of the elect, that have been, are, or shall be gathered into one under Christ the head” (WLC #64). To be sure, some of God’s elect are not at this time either converted or members of the visible church. And it is possible for someone to profess faith in Jesus Christ and be baptized and be a member of the visible church, yet not be truly converted; “they are not all Israel who are descended from Israel” (Rom. 9:6); “he is not a Jew [or Christian] who is one outwardly, nor is circumcision [nor baptism] that which is outward in the flesh…” (Rom. 2:28-29). But where in Scripture do we see any warrant for being a member of the invisible church and not being a part of the visible church? When the Bible speaks of the church, it is most frequently speaking of a visible entity, with officers, discipline, structure, organization, etc. Boundaries, definition, and limitations are presupposed. Jesus is building an institution that the world can see. When our Westminster Confession of Faith declares that outside of the visible church “there is no ordinary possibility of salvation,” it is not guilty of a Roman Catholic view of the church, that mere membership saves someone, but is affirming the biblical truth that we cannot love Christ without loving His bride, and that it is in the church where the means of saving grace (the word, the sacraments, prayer, fellowship, and discipline) are manifested and provided.

4. Hebrews 13:17 tells us, “Obey your leaders and submit to them, for they keep watch over your souls as those who must give an account. Let them do this with joy and not with grief, for this would be unprofitable for you.” This verse (and others like it) presupposes that the people of God know who their leaders are, know to whom they must submit, know who is keeping watch over them. How can Paul tell the elders of Ephesus to shepherd the flock of God, if they don’t know who is in that flock? Which elders do you call when you’re sick (James 5:14)? How do elders know who has been allotted to their charge (I Peter 5:2)? Jesus’ words in Matthew 18:15-18 about church discipline mean nothing if there are no parameters as to who makes up the local church. Paul’s words concerning the offending brother make no sense if there is no such thing as being a member of a local church (I Corinthians 5:1-5; II Corinthians 2:6-11).

5. If you claim to be a member of the invisible/universal church, the body of Christ, then you should want to be in a position to function as a member of the body – to use your gifts, to edify your brothers and sisters, to “one another” the saints (I Peter 4:10; I Corinthians 12:7). If you are a sheep in God’s fold, a brick in His building, a member of Christ’s body, a branch of the vine, etc., then you must be connected to His people in a tangible way. Certainly, there are exceptional situations, and seasons of transition, but as a rule every Christian should be under the care and oversight of elders, and involved in the vital life of a local family of believers. When a move from one city to another occurs, the first thing one should do, perhaps even before finding a place to live, is finding a church to transfer one’s membership into, to join, to worship in, to serve, to be served and to be held accountable. The big question, as Brian Habig and Les Newsom put it in their book The Enduring Community, is this: Why in the world wouldn’t a person want to be a member of a local church?

"Predestination isn't true."

How would you respond if you heard a professing Christian say those words to you? Would you feel confident in your ability to answer that statement from the Bible? As I prepare to preach this Lord’s Day from Ephesians 1:3-6 on the topic of predestination, a few thoughts come to mind to help God’s people think about engaging in conversations about this difficult subject.

  1. Practice humility in all situations. The knowledge of truth is a gift of God, but it’s very easy to allow knowledge to lead to pride. As Paul writes in I Corinthians 8:1-2, “Knowledge puffs up, but love builds up. If anyone imagines that he knows something, he does yet know as he ought to know. But if anyone loves God, he is known by God.” Paul is not denying that we can have true knowledge of the truth, else he wouldn’t have written any of his letters at all. But he is saying that it’s possible to “know” something, yet have no love in your heart for other people. True knowledge always remembers that it doesn’t know everything, and so remains humble. And we must remember that it is possible to love God in sincerity, to have been born again and granted saving faith, but still to be ignorant of aspects of God’s truth. In fact, it’s not just possible, it’s guaranteed - none of us knows everything fully. Humility, patience, gentleness must mark us as we contend for the truth of God, especially in the area of the doctrines of grace (aka “the five points of Calvinism”).

  2. If a person claims to believe that the Bible is God’s word and therefore true, but then claims not to believe that predestination is true, it is not inappropriate to point out gently that the word “predestine” or “predestinate” occurs in the Bible (Acts 4:28; Romans 8:29-30; I Corinthians 2:7; Ephesians 1:5, 11). So predestination or election must be true, and every Christian must believe in predestination - that is, they must believe something about predestination, because it is a biblical word that must mean something, it is an action in which God has engaged. The question is, what does the Bible teach about predestination? What does God mean when He says He has predestined events, or predestined people to salvation? This is the level on which you should seek to have the conversation.

  3. At root of a denial of the truth of predestination is almost always a denial of the doctrine of total depravity. Usually people say predestination isn’t true because they don’t want to believe in a God who doesn’t choose everyone, or they want to believe that people are basically good who have the ability to choose God or to do good things to make it into heaven. So it’s important in conversations about predestination to make sure you talk about sin. Talk about the reality that none of us deserve to be chosen; that the Bible teaches God doesn’t choose us based upon anything we do (Romans 9; Deuteronomy 7); that all of us deserve judgment, and if left to ourselves we would all go willingly to hell; that God would be righteous to send everyone to hell, but graciously chooses to choose some for salvation in His Son; that His ways are higher than our ways, and past finding out.

  4. Aim to show the unbiblical nature of the “defeaters” - that is, those stereotypes about what predestination “always” leads to. “Predestination always leads to arrogance” - no, it leads to the deepest humility, as we realize that we can take no credit for our own salvation (I Corinthians 1). “Predestination always leads to apathy in Christian living and in evangelism” - no, it leads to a passion for holiness and a passion to share the gospel with the lost (Ephesians 1:4; Matthew 11:25-30). It alone gives confidence that the God who has chosen us for holiness will sanctify us, and that the God who chosen us has chosen other sinners, and will call them to Himself through our words. “Predestination always leads to dry intellectualism” - no, it leads to heart worship and adoration of a sovereign God who acts according to the good pleasure of His will to do what we could never do for ourselves (Ephesians 1:3-14). To be sure, believing in predestination has and can lead some toward arrogance, apathy, and dry intellectualism. But it ought not. And so don’t only show from the Scriptures how these defeaters are wrong-headed, but show in your life as well that the truth of predestination changes us from the inside out.

The Joy of the Incarnation - What One Great Hymn Teaches Us

This past Sunday evening I had an opportunity to comment upon one of the hymns we sang after the Cherub Choir pageant, Paul Gerhardt’s “All My Heart This Night Rejoices.” This hymn is not as familiar as some, yet its words richly repay our contemplation and meditation. Gerhardt begins by declaring his joy in the birth of Jesus:

All my heart this night rejoices
as I hear far and near
sweetest angel voices.
“Christ is born,” their choirs are singing
till the air ev’rywhere
now with joy is ringing.

In the next six stanzas, Gerhardt give us several reasons why the incarnation of our Savior brings us such great joy.

1 – Because the incarnation was an act of war. Gerhardt sings in the second stanza,

Forth today the Conqu’ror goeth,
who the foe, sin and woe,
death and hell o’erthroweth.

 We probably don’t often think about the incarnation in this way (Herod certainly did when he sent his soldiers to kill all the babies in Bethlehem two and under; see Matthew 2:16-17). Yet we see the connection between the incarnation of the Word of God and His conflict with His and our enemies all the way back in Genesis 3:15, and even more particularly in Hebrews 2:14-15 – “Therefore, since the children share in flesh and blood, He Himself likewise also partook of the same, that through death He might render powerless him who had the power of death, that is, the devil, and might free those who through fear of death were subject to slavery all their lives.” Jesus became a man to deal the deathblow to Satan, sin, the woe and misery of sin, death itself, and the pains of hell forever.

2 – Because the incarnation is permanent. The second stanza continues,

God is man, man to deliver;
His death Son now is one
with our race forever.

Jesus’ incarnate state did not cease with His death, or His ascension to glory. He remains a man, and the dust of earth sits upon the throne of glory. He knows intimately what it is to be human still, and so can sympathize with us in our weaknesses. When the eternal Son of God took on human nature, He was affirming the goodness of our humanity, and He was assuring us that we too will live an embodied existence for all eternity. Though the intermediate state is disembodied, our souls being with Jesus while our bodies rest in the grave till the resurrection, yet for eternity we will walk on a new earth with our Savior.

3 – Because the incarnation was for the purpose of substitution. The third and fourth stanzas are rich indeed:

Shall we still dread God’s displeasure,
who, to save, freely gave
His most cherished Treasure?
To redeem us, he hath given
His own Son, from the throne
of His might in heaven.

He becomes the Lamb who taketh
sin away, and for aye [forever]
full atonement maketh.
For our life his own he tenders;
and our race, by his grace,
meet for glory renders.

We must never separate the birth of Jesus and the death of Jesus. He was born in order that He might die. He became a man not only to be like us and with us, but also to die for us, as our substitute. The incarnation is for the purpose of atoning for the sins of His people. The wages of sin is death, but God cannot die. So the only way for God to reconcile sinners to Himself was to become us them in our humanity, so that He might obey and suffer in our nature. Because Jesus has died, the beautiful truth in stanza three is ours: we have no need to fear the displeasure or anger or wrath of God, for He has poured it all out on His beloved Son in our place. He gave His greatest Treasure for us, to make us wretches His treasured possession.

4 – The incarnation meets our deepest sadness. The fifth and sixth stanza ring out,

Hark! a voice from yonder manger,
soft and sweet, doth entreat,
“Flee from woe and danger.
Brethren, from all ills that grieve you,
you are freed; all you need
I will surely give you.”

Come, then, banish all your sadness,
one and all, great and small;
come with songs of gladness.
Love him who with love is glowing;
hail the star, near and far
light and joy bestowing.

Isaiah 53:3 tells us that Jesus was a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief. He carried our griefs and sorrows, so that we might be freed ultimately from them forever. Because Jesus was born, we have hope, joy, gladness, and light. In this world we have sorrow, for Jesus has not returned. But by His incarnation, and all that flowed from it in His ministry on earth and in heaven, our sorrows are overwhelmed by the joy He gives us. We are called to banish our sadness from our hearts, for He has freed us from the penalty and power of sin, which cause our deepest sorrow, and promises to give us all we need for life and godliness – even the gift of gladness in times of distress.

5 – The incarnation gives us hope beyond the grave. Gerhardt closes his song with these words:

Dearest Lord, thee will I cherish.
Though my breath fail in death,
yet I shall not perish,
but with thee abide forever
there on high, in that joy
which can vanish never.

As those who trust in Christ Jesus the incarnate Word of God, we have absolute confidence that when we die, we will be with Him forever. And beyond that, as we have already mentioned above, we too will have a resurrected body on the last day. “He will transform the body of our humble state into conformity with the body or His glory, by the exertion of the power that He has even to subject all things to Himself” (Philippians 3:21). And so with this confidence we rejoice with exceedingly great joy, now and forevermore.

Where Do You Find Yourself on this Idolatry Chart?

Stephen Speaks, the pastor of Trinity Presbyterian Church in Jackson, MS, recently shared with me a chart he developed based on material from Tim Keller, founding pastor of Redeemer Presbyterian Church in New York City.

Idolatry Chart from Stephen Speaks.jpg

On the left hand side four broad categories of idols are listed: comfort, approval, control, and power. These idols are at the root of our sinful choices, feelings, and words. Along the top six categories unpack the idols in their practical outworking in our lives.

These idols so often go unrecognized in our lives because they masquerade as good qualities in our hearts and lives. Someone with an idol of comfort can often present themselves as a laidback, easygoing person. Likewise, someone with an idol of control can come across as very competent. In each case, the idolatry tends to be hidden by the genuine good character trait(s) that we can possess when enslaved by the idol.

The next column shows the price we are willing to pay to serve our false god. Those worshipping power are willing to bear enormous burdens and responsibilities to get their lust fulfilled. Those who long for approval will tend to sacrifice independence if only they are accepted by others.

The third column is the inverse of the second - what is it that we most fear when we are ruled by these idols? What do we not want to happen? This column can be most helpful in identifying which idol(s) has captured your heart.

The fourth and fifth columns speak to how our idolatries affect us and other people. What are the emotional manifestations that we will struggle with, and how will others be impacted by our functional idolatry? The person living for control will typically be filled with anxiety, and will make others feel condemned. The person living for the approval of man will be filled with fear and cowardice, and will make others feel smothered. In neither case will we actually get what we want, either in relation to ourselves or others.

The final column of the chart depicts the gospel reality that each idol counterfeits. Our idols promise us what only can be found through faith in Jesus Christ, by the grace of the Holy Spirit. Recognizing this truth day by day, moment by moment, moves us from idolatry to repentance and trust in God’s mercy.

Spend time meditating on your own life in relation to this chart, and pray that the Lord would expose and root up the idols of your heart.

John Donne's Holy Sonnets Are A Rich Feast for the Soul

Poetry probably isn’t the first thing we rush to read every morning, and yet we all know the power of a poem. What is a song, but a type of poem set to music? And which of us has not been impacted deeply by the lyrics to some song?

If you’ve never read any of John Donne’s “Holy Sonnets,” you’ve missed out on a rare source of spiritual nourishment and soul-formation. Here are three that set forth Christian truth in such a memorable and vivid way - make sure to read them slowly (even out loud), and more than once, to taste the full sweetness of Donne’s imagery and word choice.

Wilt thou love God as he thee?

Wilt thou love God as he thee? then digest,
My soul, this wholesome meditation,
How God the Spirit, by angels waited on
In heaven, doth make His temple in thy breast.
The Father having begot a Son most blest,
And still begetting—for he ne'er begun—
Hath deigned to choose thee by adoption,
Co-heir to His glory, and Sabbath's endless rest.
And as a robbed man, which by search doth find
His stolen stuff sold, must lose or buy it again,
The Sun of glory came down, and was slain,
Us whom He had made, and Satan stolen, to unbind.
'Twas much, that man was made like God before,
But, that God should be made like man, much more. 

Death, be not proud

Death, be not proud, though some have called thee 
Mighty and dreadful, for thou art not so; 
For those whom thou think'st thou dost overthrow 
Die not, poor Death, nor yet canst thou kill me. 
From rest and sleep, which but thy pictures be, 
Much pleasure; then from thee much more must flow, 
And soonest our best men with thee do go, 
Rest of their bones, and soul's delivery. 
Thou art slave to fate, chance, kings, and desperate men, 
And dost with poison, war, and sickness dwell, 
And poppy or charms can make us sleep as well 
And better than thy stroke; why swell'st thou then? 
One short sleep past, we wake eternally 
And death shall be no more; Death, thou shalt die. 

Batter my heart

Batter my heart, three-person'd God; for you 
As yet but knock, breathe, shine, and seek to mend; 
That I may rise and stand, o'erthrow me, and bend 
Your force to break, blow, burn, and make me new. 
I, like an usurped town, to another due, 
Labor to admit you, but oh, to no end; 
Reason, your viceroy in me, me should defend, 
But is captived, and proves weak or untrue. 
Yet dearly I love you, and would be loved fain, 
But am betrothed unto your enemy; 
Divorce me, untie or break that knot again, 
Take me to you, imprison me, for I, 
Except you enthrall me, never shall be free, 
Nor ever chaste, except you ravish me. 

This Getty Hymn Helps us Remember Who We Are and Whose We Are

One of the foundational principles of the Christian life is our union with Christ. We are in Him, and He is in us by His Spirit. We are accepted in the Beloved, and belong to Him. Our unbreakable relationship with Him supplies to us the surest ground of significance, and our deepest identity.

One of the songs that so beautifully speaks of this reality is the Gettys’ “My Worth is Not in What I Own.” This hymn covers a variety of topics: stewardship, accomplishment, youth and beauty, idolatry, worth, and the atoning work of Christ on our behalf. The Gettys have written about the back-story of this hymn here. Read and be encouraged as to who you are and whose you are, and sing out with joy the next time we use this song in corporate worship!

 
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Aging in Grace - two quotes from my sermon

Several of you asked for the quotations from the end of my sermon this past Sunday morning. The first was from Archibald Alexander’s “Letters to the Aged,” which I’ve just reprinted under the title Aging in Grace: Letters to Those in the Autumn of Life. Here’s an expanded version of his encouraging words:

As an aged man, I would say to my fellow-pilgrims who are also in this advanced stage of the journey of life, endeavor to be useful, as long as you are continued upon earth. We are, it is true, subject to many peculiar infirmities, both of body and mind, to bear up under which requires much exertion, and no small share of divine assistance; but still we have some advantages not possessed by the young. We have received important lessons from experience, which if they have been rightly improved, are of inestimable value. The book of divine providence, which is in a great measure sealed to them, has been unfolded to us. We can look back and contemplate all the way along which the Lord has led us. We can now see the wise design of our Father, in many events, which, at the time, were dark and mysterious…I would affectionately entreat my aged brethren to make the dealings of God’s providence towards themselves, a subject of careful study. There is within our reach, except in the Bible, no source of instruction more important.

The second was from Thomas Brooks, in his book Precious Remedies for Satan’s Devices, a Puritan Paperback published by Banner of Truth. It’s a marvelous exposition of all the ways Satan seeks to tempt us to sin, and I’m benefiting greatly from it in my morning private worship. Here is what Brooks said:

Your life is short, your duties many, your assistance great, and your reward sure; therefore faint not, hold on and hold up, in ways of well-doing, and heaven shall make amends for all.

May the Lord encourage us as grow older in the strong arms of His grace each day!

Suffering and Psalm 63

If you are suffering today, or this week, or this year, and you haven’t spent time in Psalm 63 recently, I encourage you to do it! David’s words are refreshingly realistic and filled with hope and God-centered joy in the midst of dryness and weariness. On the Desiring God website, staff writer Marshall Segal has written a helpful meditation upon this psalm entitled, “The Joy We Know Only in Suffering.” Make use of it as you walk through the wildernesses. God is present even there, and our longing for Him demonstrates how satisfying He is.

Thanks to ruling elder Adam Adcock for recommending this article.

Technology, Idolatry, and Eternal Life

Paul is clear in Romans 1 - if we don’t worship the one true Creator God, we will worship the creation. One way that idolatry is manifested today is in the secular search for eternal life - not found through faith in Jesus Christ, but through faith in technology. Technology leaders in America are on the hunt for a cure for death, and they are willing to sacrifice huge amounts of money to find the secret elixer that will allow them to live forever, according to Jacob Banas, author of “Disrupting the Reaper: Tech Titans’ Quest for Immortality Rages Forward.” Banas references an article about Christianity in Silicon Valley that observes, “Traditional religion in the Bay Area is being replaced with another sort of faith, a belief in the power of technology and science to save humanity.” Banas comments, “Combine this new governing philosophy (what others have called a “religion of technology“) with leaders who are too young to find peace in the concept of death and who haven’t experienced the kinds of traumas that might inoculate them against some of that fear? You get a perfect storm of longevity obsession.”

God tells us that He has set eternity in the hearts of mankind (Ecclesiastes 3:11). Made in his image, and created with a soul that will never die, Christians understand that the desire to live forever is not wrong. The problem is that because of Adam’s sin, death has entered the world. There is no escaping the grim reaper, for “it has been appointed for the die once and after this comes judgment” (Hebrews 9:27). Every single person will live forever, in a body - either in eternal joy on a new earth, or eternal misery in hell. What determines our destiny? The way we respond to Jesus Christ in this relatively short life. If you have friends that long to live forever, if you have friends that put their hope in technology to give them eternal life, point them to the only Savior from idolatry, the only giver of true life, Jesus the Son of God.

Some helpful articles from the Gospel Reformation Network

The Gospel Reformation Network (GRN) is a group within the PCA seeking to cultivate healthy Reformed churches within our denomination, and several articles they have posted lately do a great job of addressing some issues the PCA is engaging right now:

  • Dr. Jon Payne, the GRN Convener, has written a beautiful case for “Cultivating the Bonds of Peace within the PCA.” An excerpt: "When it comes to disagreeing with brothers over denominational issues, many of us can relate to Paul’s expression: “I do not do what I want, but often the very thing that I hate” (Rom. 7:15). We know deep down that we should engage in humble and open dialogue with the “other side”, and yet we largely dwell in the comfortable and affirming echo-chambers of our own tribe. We lob impulsive (often harsh) verbal grenades on social media. We convince ourselves that no benefit will come from meeting with one another. What’s the use? It’s just easier for everyone if we simply keep our distance. But God calls us to something different, doesn’t He? That’s why I was grateful to receive an invitation to meet for dinner in Nashville, Tennessee with several PCA teaching and ruling elders from differing perspectives within our denomination."

  • GRN Council Member David Strain provides a serious and tenderhearted pastoral letter to a fictitious congregation member, "Thomas," who is dealing with same-sex attraction. This piece will be immensely helpful to pastor and church member alike: "Dear Thomas, A Pastoral Approach to Dealing with Same Sex Attraction." 

  • GRN Council Member Rick Phillips on Revoice and the alleged "Idolatry" of the Nuclear Family

  • GRN Council Member Harry Reeder offering his analysis of the Revoice Conference in "Revoice or God's Voice?"

  • RTS Jackson Professor Dr. Guy Waters provides an insightful linguistic and exegetical analysis on key Greek terms used by the Apostle Paul in I Cor. 6:9. The meaning and definition of this verse and its vocabulary has been called into serious question in recent times. Dr. Waters offers a clear, yet compassionate, rejoinder in "Paul’s Understanding of Sexuality: μαλακοὶ and ἀρσενοκοῖται in 1 Cor 6:9."

John Calvin on the Beauty and Advantages of the Psalms

We are beginning a new Sunday evening sermon series on some selected Psalms this coming Lord's Day. In my preparation this week for the introductory sermon, I read again John Calvin's preface to his commentary on the Psalms. I encourage you to read it for yourself, so that you might be spurred on to spend more time in God's hymnal:

The varied and resplendent riches which are contained in this treasure it is no easy matter to express in words; so much so, that I well know that whatever I shall be able to say will be far from approaching the excellence of the subject. But as it is better to give my readers some taste, however small, of the wonderful advantages they will derive from the study of this book, than to be entirely silent on the point, I may be permitted briefly to advert to a matter, the greatness of which does not admit of being fully unfolded.

I have been accustomed to call this book, I think not inappropriately, "An Anatomy of all the Parts of the Soul;" for there is not an emotion of which any one can be conscious that is not here represented as in a mirror. Or rather, the Holy Spirit has here drawn to the life all the griefs, sorrows, fears, doubts, hopes, cares, perplexities, in short, all the distracting emotions with which the minds of men are wont to be agitated. The other parts of Scripture contain the commandments which God enjoined his servants to announce to us. But here the prophets themselves, seeing they are exhibited to us as speaking to God, and laying open all their inmost thoughts and affections, call, or rather draw, each of us to the examination of himself in particular, in order that none of the many infirmities to which we are subject, and of the man vices with which we abound, may remain concealed. It is certainly a rare and singular advantage, when all lurking places are discovered, and the heart is brought into the light, purged from that most baneful infection, hypocrisy. In short, as calling upon God is one of the principal means of securing our safety, and as a better and more unerring rule for guiding us in this exercise cannot be found elsewhere than in the Psalms, it follows, that in proportion to the proficiency which a man shall have attained in understanding them, will be his knowledge of the most important part of celestial doctrine.

Genuine and earnest prayer proceeds first from a sense of our need, and next, from faith in the promises of God. It is by perusing these inspired compositions, that men will be most effectually awakened to a sense of their maladies, and, at the same time, instructed in seeking remedies for their cure. In a word, whatever may serve to encourage us when we are about to pray to God, is taught us in this book. And not only are the promises of God presented to us in it, but oftentimes there is exhibited to us one standing, as it were, amidst the invitations of God on the one hand, and the impediments of the flesh on the other, girding and preparing himself for prayer: thus teaching us, if at any time we are agitated with a variety of doubts, to resist and fight against them, until the soul, freed and disentangled from all these impediments, rise up to God; and not only so, but even when in the midst of doubts, fears, and apprehensions, let us put forth our efforts in prayer, until we experience some consolation which may calm and bring contentment to our minds. Although distrust may shut the gate against our prayers, yet we must not allow ourselves to give way, whenever our hearts waver or are agitated with inquietude, but must persevere until faith finally come forth victorious from these conflicts.

In many places we may perceive the exercise of the servants of God in prayer so fluctuating, that they are almost overwhelmed by the alternate hope of success and apprehension of failure, and gain the prize only by strenuous exertions. We see on the one hand, the flesh manifesting its infirmity; and on the other, faith putting forth its power; and if it is not so valiant and courageous as might be desired, it is at least prepared to fight until by degrees it acquire perfect strength. But as those things which serve to teach us the true method of praying aright will be found scattered through the whole of this Commentary, I will not now stop to treat of topics which it will be necessary afterwards to repeat, nor detain my readers from proceeding to the work itself. Only it appeared to me to be requisite to show in passing, that this book makes known to us this privilege, which is desirable above all others - that not only is there opened up to us familiar access to God, but also that we have permission and freedom granted us to lay open before him our infirmities, which we would be ashamed to confess before men.

Besides, there is also here prescribed to us an infallible rule for directing us with respect to the right manner of offering to God the sacrifice of praise, which he declares to be most precious in his sight, and of the sweetest odor. There is no other book in which there is to be found more express and magnificent commendations, both of the unparalleled liberality of God towards his Church, and of all his works; there is no other book in which there is recorded so many deliverances, nor one in which the evidences and experiences of the father providence and solicitude which God exercises towards us, are celebrated with such splendor of diction, and yet with the strictest adherence to truth; in short, there is no other book in which we are more perfectly taught the right manner of praising God, or in which we are more powerfully stirred up to the performance of this religious exercise.

Moreover, although the Psalms are replete with all the precepts which serve to frame our life to every part of holiness, piety, and righteousness, yet they will principally teach and train us to bear the cross; and the bearing of the cross is a genuine proof of our obedience, since by doing this, we renounce the guidance of our own affections, and submit ourselves entirely to God, leaving him to govern us, and to dispose of our life according to his will, so that the afflictions which are the bitterest and most severe to our nature, become sweet to us, because they proceed from him. In one word, not only will we here find general commendations of the goodness of God, which may teach men to repose themselves in him alone, and to seek all their happiness solely in him; and which are intended to teach true believers with their whole hearts confidently to look to him for help in all their necessities; but we will also find that the free remission of sins, which alone reconciles God towards us, and procures for us settled peace with him, is so set forth and magnified, as that here there is nothing wanting which relates to the knowledge of eternal salvation.

Edward Dering's Gospel Prayer

Edward Dering, an English Puritan who lived from 1540-1576, offered this prayer as a summary of the truth of the catechism he had written for the people of God during the days of Queen Elizabeth. It is rich in gospel experience, and keeps before our eyes those three most important realities: guilt, grace, and gratitude (or if you prefer your theology to start with the letter "R," ruin, redemption, and restoration). Use it as you prepare for worship on the Lord's Day!

O merciful and heavenly Father, since at every light occasion, I am withdrawn from your holy laws, to the vanities of this life, unto all sin and wickedness; I beseech you in mercy set before my eyes always the remembrance of your judgment seat, and my last end: whereby I may be daily stirred up to consider in what great danger I stand, through the horrible punishment due to my sins: that daily groaning under the burden of them, I may fly for succor to your beloved son Jesus Christ, who has fully paid, suffered & overcome the punishment due to them: and through the working of your holy Spirit in me, I may be fully assured in my soul and conscience, that the curse, condemnation, and death which these my sins deserve, is fully paid, suffered, and overcome in Christ, that his righteousness, obedience, and holiness is mine, and whatsoever he has wrought for man’s salvation is wholly mine.

Strengthen this faith in me daily more and more, that I may inwardly feel comfort and consolation in this, that I feel your holy Spirit bear record unto my spirit, that I am your child, grafted into the body of your Son, and made with him fellow heir of your everlasting kingdom. So work in me by your holy Spirit, that daily more and more I may feel sin die in me, that I do not delight therein, but daily may groan under the burden thereof, utterly hate, detest, and loath sin, set myself and all the powers of my soul and body against sin, and have my full delight, joy, comfort, and pleasure in those things which be agreeable to your will, that I may walk as becomes the Children of light, looking still for that good time, which it shall please you to call me to your everlasting kingdom, and joy eternal. This in mercy grant unto me for Jesus Christ’s sake, my only Lord and Savior, Amen.

The Christian and the Tithe

This past Sunday evening we studied Malachi 3:7-12, the passage in which God through His prophet rebukes His people for their failure to give to Him tithes and offerings. It is perhaps hard to see what these words from the mid-400s B.C. have to do with how we spend our money today, so I want to reflect on and apply this passage to Christians living in the 21st century. First, the text:

From the days of your fathers you have turned aside from my statutes and have not kept them. Return to me, and I will return to you, says the LORD of hosts. But you say, 'How shall we return?' Will man rob God? Yet you are robbing me. But you say, 'How have we robbed you?' In your tithes and contributions. You are cursed with a curse, for you are robbing me, the whole nation of you. Bring the full tithe into the storehouse, that there may be food in my house. And thereby put me to the test, says the LORD of hosts, if I will not open the windows of heaven for you and pour down for you a blessing until there is no more need. I will rebuke the devourer for you, so that it will not destroy the fruits of your soil, and your vine in the field shall not fail to bear, says the LORD of hosts. Then all nations will call you blessed, for you will be a land of delight, says the LORD of hosts.

Malachi calls God's people to repent in regard to their breaking the 8th commandment - but notice that he accuses them of stealing, not from man, but from God Himself, by bringing less than the full tithe into the temple storehouse. There is much in these verses, but several things stand out:

1. The tithe belongs to the Lord, and withholding it from Him is robbing Him. A tithe is a tenth part of our income. For the Israelites, an agricultural people, this meant that they tithed seed, fruit, wine, oil, vegetables, oxen, cows, sheep (they would just line them up and count them, and every tenth one would be the Lord’s, no matter if it was the best or the worst – Lev. 27:30ff.; see Jer. 33:13). Today, as our economy has changed, we tithe money, not goods or produce. But why did God command the tithe? He did it to remind His people that all of our wealth comes from Him and is given to us as a stewardship – just as He sets one day in seven apart to remind us that all our time is His. The tithe and the Sabbath day are His in a special way, they are set apart/holy to Him. Israel was called to repent of robbing God and keeping for themselves what was rightfully His.

2. The tithe was for the provision of the work and worship of God, “so that there might be food in God’s house.” In Numbers 18, God commands that the tithe is to go to the Levites, and they in turn would tithe the tithe to the priests. The Levites had no inheritance in the Promised Land, so the rest of the people were to provide for them. God had the people of God provide for those who led the people in worship and taught them, so that the priests and Levites could devote themselves to God’s work without distraction (see Nehemiah 13:10ff.!). Israel was called to repent of keeping from the work and worship of God what was necessary for its maintenance – and the existence of a “storehouse” (a savings account) was not to stop them from making their tithes and contributions.

3. Even in the Old Covenant, the tithe was just the beginning. Israel was expected to bring tithes and contributions. A "contribution" or "offering" was a general term ranging in meaning from the tithe itself (Num. 18:24) to the part of the tithe set apart for the priest (Num. 18:26) to the offering for the priest's consecration (Exo. 25:2), to offerings for the building of the tabernacle (Exo. 25:2). It was sometimes a commanded offering, and sometimes a voluntary contribution to the Lord. So even in the days of Moses, the tithe was only a starting point for giving to the Lord. And if that was the case in the Old Covenant, how much more under the New Covenant!

It’s sometimes said that the tithe was merely a part of the Mosaic ceremonial law, no longer binding on believers after the coming of Jesus, in the New Covenant. But the first instance we see of tithing in the Bible is Abraham, who gave to Melchizedek, a priest of God Most High (Gen. 14:18-20). The OT also records Jacob as saying that he would give a tenth to God (Gen. 28:22). From the beginning of God’s people, giving a tenth to God has been a part of worship.

So often, people go to the NT and say, “See, it doesn’t say anything about tithing there.” I disagree: There are two passages that I believe clearly carry the tithe commandment into the new covenant: Matt. 23:23, “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you tithe mint and dill and cummin, and have neglected the weightier provisions of the law: justice and mercy and faithfulness; but these are the things you should have done without neglecting the others.” And I Cor. 9:13-14, in which Paul argues for paying pastors on the basis of the OT principle that the tithe should provide for the needs of those teach and labor for the Lord as a vocation. Now, someone may raise the objection, "But doesn’t Paul say in II Cor. 8:8, 'I am not speaking this as a command, but as proving through the earnestness of others the sincerity of your love also.'? And doesn’t he say in II Corinthains 9:7, 'Each one must do just as he has purposed in his heart, not grudgingly or under compulsion, for God loves a cheerful giver.'?" Yes, but II Corinthians 8-9 refer to a voluntary collection that he was making for the poor saints in Jerusalem; it’s an offering over and above the tithe given for the sustenance of the ministry in Corinth, as opposed to the obligatory tithe.

The reason you don’t see a lot about the tithe in the NT is because in large part the NT presupposed the tithe. And it urges Christians to be even more generous than the tithe, and even more generous than the saints in the Old Covenant. When I hear people ask, “Is the standard of giving in the NT still the tithe?” (isn’t it interesting that those who ask this are almost never looking for an excuse to give more than the tithe), my answer is, “Of course! And even in the OT they gave more than the tithe!” But my answer is also, “Of course not! Our standard is the sacrifice of Jesus Christ!” II Cor. 9:8 tells us that the Xn’s motivation and model for giving is the sacrifice of Jesus – “you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though He was rich, yet for your sake He became poor, so that you through His poverty might become rich.” Does it make any sense to think that the standard of giving after Jesus’ death would decrease from what it was before His death?

What we see in the New Testament is that the better we understand the gospel, the more generous we shall be – like Jesus, we will become poor that others may become rich. God doesn’t merely want your tithe – that’s the minimum for us like it was for OT saints – He wants your heart, your generosity and sacrifice. If you aren’t tithing, you are robbing God. God’s word to you is clear: repent! Return, humbly confessing your sin and asking God to change your heart and your financial habits. And see that repentance must start with at least a tithe.

R.C. Sproul tells of a denominational stewardship program that prompted "the crisis that awakened him from his dogmatic slumbers." The program was based on the theme, "Take a Step Toward Tithing." The idea was simple: if a person was currently giving 1% of their income they were urged to increase it to 2%, and so on down the line. Sproul said to my ministerial comrades, "I can't implement this program." Some said, "Why not? It sounds like a practical way to get people to move in the right direction in a less than severely painful way." He objected on the grounds that the program contained two serious errors: 1) it made tithing an ideal that only super-committed Christians ever reach, a zenith point of sacrificial giving; 2) it gave the tacit blessing of the church to people robbing God. It was like saying "Last year you robbed God of 9% of what you owe Him. This year please rob the Deity of merely 8%."

God expects His people to continue to tithe in the New Covenant. But we must never forget that it is possible to tithe and still be robbing God. Consider: the Pharisees tithed too – but they were unconverted, and didn’t care about the poor and needy. Their giving was all external formalism and hypocrisy; they didn’t give God their heart. You can tithe and not be converted. In addition, for some of His people, 10% isn’t much of a sacrifice. You don’t really start to feel the pinch. The question to ask is, What percentage of my income is a sacrifice? Give that. Saying to God, “Okay, here’s my 10 percent, and not a penny more” is not an acceptable offering. So repentance will be costly. Some Christians will have to sacrifice just to get to the minimum that God requires of His people. There will have to be a change in our standard of living. For increasing our giving may well mean decreasing spending somewhere else. Yet God is faithful and will work in us to will and to do according to His good pleasure; as Paul writes in II Corinthians 9:8, 11, “God is able to make all grace abound to you, so that always having a sufficiency in everything, you may have an abundance for every good deed…[Y]ou will be enriched in everything for all liberality, which through us is producing thanksgiving to God.”

I haven't answered every question about tithing, or even about Malachi 3:7-12. Yet I pray that what I have written will spur you on to love and good deeds. May the Lord enable us to give generously, sacrificially, and obediently!

 

Some reasons why Christians struggle to talk about Jesus

In a recent Barna survey, adults in the US were asked why they don't more often about their faith. Here's a summary of what they found:

People who don’t talk very often about faith offer different reasons, but most of these fall into two broad categories: avoidance and ambivalence. For instance, the two avoidant responses (among the top four) given for not engaging in conversations are: “Religious conversations always seem to create tension or arguments” (28%) and “I’m put off by how religion has been politicized” (17%). The other two responses indicate ambivalence: “I’m not religious and don’t care about these kinds of topics” (23%) and “I don’t feel like I know enough to talk about religious or spiritual topics” (17%). Here’s the full list of options:

  • Religious conversations always seem to create tension or arguments: 28%
  • I’m not religious and don’t care about these kinds of topics: 23%
  • I’m put off by how religion has been politicized: 17%
  • I don’t feel like I know enough to talk about religious or spiritual topics: 17%
  • I don’t want to be known as a religious person: 7%
  • I don’t know how to talk about religious or spiritual topics without sounding weird: 6%
  • I’m afraid people will see me as a fanatic or extremist: 5%
  • I’m embarrassed by the way religious language has been used in popular culture: 5%
  • I’ve been hurt by religious conversations in the past: 4%
  • Religious language and jargon feels cheesy or outdated: 4%

This survey interviewed people of both religious (and irreligious) backgrounds, so the answers are reflective even of the opinions of Christians. What about you? Are you ambivalent about sharing the gospel of Jesus and talking about your faith in Him? Are do you seek to avoid it because of what it has led to in the past or might lead to in the future? In I Peter 3:15, Christ calls us to set Him apart as Lord in our hearts (this eradicates ambivalence reasons), and to be ready at all times to give an answer for the hope that is in us, with gentleness and respect (this knocks the legs out from under avoidance reasons). We must be bold and tender, direct and wise, initiating and responsive. Pray the Lord would give you open doors and an open mouth to speak about your love for the one who loved you and gave Himself up for you on the cross!

The Significance of the Burial of Jesus

This past Sunday I preached from John 19:38-20:18, on the burial and resurrection of Jesus Christ. I want to comment on something I didn't speak to in my sermon: why is the burial of Jesus important to the Christian faith? Indeed, Paul declared that "He was buried" is one of the matters "of first importance" that he received and delivered to the Corinthian church (I Corinthians 15:3-4).

First, the burial of Jesus ensures that the resurrection of Jesus was just that: a resurrection from the dead. Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus prepared Jesus' body for burial, and buried Him in a new tomb, in which no other body had yet been laid (John 19:38-42). These men could testify that there was no life in the body they buried. He had not "swooned," lost consciousness, or fainted. He had truly died. Therefore, if in three days He were alive, the burial proved that He had risen from death to new life.

Second, the burial of Jesus was itself an aspect of His humiliation. The Westminster Larger Catechism #50 reminds us, "Christ's humiliation after his death consisted in his being buried, and continuing in the state of the dead, and under the power of death till the third day; which hath been otherwise expressed in these words, He descended into hell." Jesus did not die and then immediately come back to life. His suffering and humiliation descended to the point of remaining under the power of death from Friday through Sunday. As the Westminster divines point out, one aspect of the meaning of the statement "He descended into hell" is clearly the separation of His body and soul in death. As Herman Bavinck puts it, "The state of death in which Christ entered when he died was as essentially a part of his humiliation as his spiritual suffering on the cross. In both together he completed his perfect obedience" (Reformed Dogmatics, Volume 3, p. 417). Though Psalm 16:10/Acts 2:24-27, 31 assure us that Jesus did not see corruption, and His soul was not abandoned to Hades/Sheol (the state of death), yet it is great comfort to know that Jesus has experienced the whole measure of human suffering, even tasting the grave for a season - He fully bore the wages of sin.

Third, the burial of Jesus fulfilled Scripture, and the words of Jesus Himself. Isaiah 53:9 declares that the grave of the Suffering Servant would be "with a rich man in his death" - fulfilled in the person of Joseph of Arimathea. Jesus taught that His death, burial and resurrection was foreshadowed by the experience of Jonah in the belly of the great fish: "Just as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the great fish, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth." Had Jesus not been buried, He would have been proved wrong, or worse, a liar. But He was indeed in the heart of the earth; Scriptural typology, and Jesus' prophecy, were fulfilled.

To deny or ignore the burial of Jesus is certainly to deny or ignore a truth "of first importance" for Christians.

Tim Keller's Recent Witness Before the British Authorities

Tim Keller recently spoke at the Parliamentary Prayer Breakfast in the Houses of Parliament in London, and in the words of one reviewer, he "provided a masterclass in gracious apologetics." If you want to see how to speak of Christ to a secular culture, watch this 25-minute video. Keller discusses the beneficial role of Christianity as salt in a non-Christian culture, challenging secularism to consider the contradictions within its worldview, and challenging Christians to be the saints God has called us to be so that we might serve the world around us and woo them to our Lord and Savior. Very much worth your time.